A scientific framework provides explanation for numerous childhood and adult health problems and high-risk behaviours that originate in early life.
In our review, we discuss adverse childhood experiences, toxic stress, the neurobiological basis and multigenerational and epigenetic transmission of trauma and recognized health implications.
Further, we outline building resilience, screening in the clinical setting, primary care interventions, applying trauma-informed care and future directions. We foresee that enhancing knowledge of the far-reaching effects of adverse childhood events will facilitate mitigation of toxic stress, promote child and family resilience and optimize life course health trajectories.
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